You might be aware of Test and learn approach -
I'd like to relate it to Gustafson's law today.
Gustafson's law's Derivation
A task executed by a system whose resources are improved compared to an initial similar system can be split into two parts:
a part that does not benefit from the improvement of the resources of the system;
a part that benefits from the improvement of the resources of the system.
Now if we were to compare these two parts - we would have what is called 'control' and 'test'.